Aims and objectives

According to the History Curriculum Guide(Secondary 1-3) (2019) and the History Curriculum and Assessment Guide (Secondary 4-6) (2007) (with updates in 2015) endorsed by the Curriculum Development Council (CDC), the curriculum aims and curriculum objectives are as follows:

Collaborative Learning

Junior Form

  1. Enhance and develop students’ interest in studying history;
  2. Help students understand the present in the context of the past;
  3. Enrich students’ knowledge of their own community and culture, as well as other major cultures of the world;
  4. Develop students’ historical skills and generic skills for further studies and life situations;
  5. Nurture students to become citizens who have global perspectives, knowledge and a sense of responsibility.

Senior Form

  1. Discover where they stand in the contemporary world through understanding the origins and development of modern events;
  2. Develop the skills of critical thinking, making sound judgments and effective communication through exploring historical issues;
  3. Approach past and current events in an impartial and empathetic manner, using a variety of perspectives;
  4. Understand the characteristics and values of their own culture, and appreciate the shared humanity and common problems of the world’s many peoples;
  5. Cultivate both national consciousness and the consciousness of being citizens of the global community, and thus become rational and sensible members of the local community, the nation and the world; and
  6. Be prepared to explore in greater depth an issue of personal interest, or one that may be of relevance to their future careers and professional studies
History quiz competition

Junior Form
Knowledge and Understanding

  1. Understand and comprehend from a variety of perspectives (political, economic, technological and scientific, social, religious, aesthetic, etc.), the main characteristics of world civilisations in different periods;
  2. Understand and comprehend the main characteristics of the development of Hong Kong and to relate them to the national and world development;
  3. Comprehend basic historical concepts and terms;
  4. Understand the relationship between cause and consequence of historical events;
  5. Comprehend change and continuity in major historical issues and developments;
  6. Understand that the past may be interpreted in different ways;


  1. Use historical terminology in an appropriate way;
  2. Present historical events accurately in chronological order;
  3. Describe characteristics of historical maps, models, diagrams, charts, pictures, tables and cartoons;
  4. Make deductions and inferences from historical sources;
  5. Identify different interpretations of major historical events and personalities;
  6. Distinguish the differences between historical facts and opinions;
  7. Comprehend the implication of sources, question and explore the accuracy and reliability, and then construct fair and impartial personal views;
  8. Make an imaginative reconstruction of past events;
  9. Select, organise and deploy sources, and express in a well-structured way;

Attitudes and Values

  1. Develop an interest in the past and an appreciation of human achievements and aspirations;
  2. Relate the study of history to contemporary life;
  3. Understand views, beliefs and values of different societies at different times so as
  4. Develop positive values and attitudes; be willing to take up the responsibility of preserving antiquities and monuments, conserving cultural heritage and promoting history and culture.

Senior Form
Knowledge and Understanding

  1. Basic historical concepts, such as cause and effect, change and continuity, and similarities and differences;
  2. Diverse standpoints and perspectives inherent in different ways of representing and interpreting the past;
  3. The beliefs, experiences and behaviours of their own nation as well as of other nations, and the ways in which they have shaped the development of the contemporary world;
  4. The inter-relations of major events and movements that have occurred in the local community, the nation, Asia and the world in the 20th century; and
  5. The major historical developments and trends that have shaped the contemporary world.


  1. Distinguish fact from opinion; detect biased viewpoints, ambiguous assumptions and unsubstantiated arguments; and build up proper historical perspectives;
  2. Compare and interpret historical data; arrive at reasoned conclusions based on available evidence; and recognise the fact that history is subject to reassessment based on the interpretation of new evidence ;
  3. Ascertain and explain the extent to which historical documents and archives reflect contemporary attitudes, values and passions;
  4. Present logical and coherent arguments through the proper selection and organisation of historical data;
  5. Search for, select, analyse and synthesise information through various means, including the Internet, and consider various ways of arriving at conclusions and making appraisals; and
  6. Apply historical knowledge and skills in everyday life.

Attitudes and Values

  1. Appreciate the difficulties and challenges that humankind faced in the past, and to understand the attitudes and values that influence human behaviour;
  2. Tolerate and respect different opinions, and to recognise the fact that although different communities have different experiences and beliefs, there are values and ideals that are commonly shared by all humankind;
  3. Develop and maintain an inquisitive attitude towards human culture; and
  4. Become responsible citizens with a sense of national identity and a global perspective.
  1. Enhance teaching and learning effectiveness
    • Promote Self-directed Learning
      Self-directed learning packages are incorporated into the curriculum.
      Guided lesson preparation and post-lesson consolidation tasks are given to students to facilitate their learning.
  2. Stretch students’ potentials in studying History
    • Promote reading
      Junior students are encouraged to join the Junior Secondary History e-Reading Scheme organized by the Education Bureau and the E-learning Development Laboratory.
    • Develop students’ skills in the study of HistoryNote-taking skills such as graphic organizers are introduced to junior students and they are given chances to apply those skills in assessment tasks.
      Collaboration with the Department of English Language Education of the Education University of Hong Kong on innovating with the Multimodalities-Entextualization Cycle in Language Across Curriculum to improve ESL Junior Secondary Students’ English Literacy.
    • Provide students opportunities to learn history outside classroom
      Exhibition and Museum Passports are distributed to F.1 students to encourage students to learn beyond classroom actively.
  3. Facilitate the smooth implementation of revised Junior History Curriculum
    • Teachers keep abreast of latest curriculum by attending the workshops organized by CDI (history section) to understand the main focus of the revised junior history curriculum.
    • Teaching schedule and teaching materials are revised according to the revised Junior History Curriculum
Curriculum framework

Junior Form
The History curriculum (S1-S3) is composed of 12 topics about learning world history and the development of Hong Kong, i.e. four topics in each school year.

S1 The ancient world (From pre-historic period to the 14th century): The birth and interactions of regional civilisations

Topic 1: Human Needs: Past and Present

Topic 2: The Development of European Civilisation

Topic 3: The Rise of Islamic Civilisation and cultural interactions between Europe and Asia in medieval times

Topic 4: History, culture and heritage of early Hong Kong region

S2 The modern world (From 15th to 19th centuries): The growth and expansion of the West

Topic 5: The Rise of modern Europe

Topic 6: European colonial expansion

Topic 7: The founding and development of the United States

Topic 8: Growth and development of Hong Kong up to the late 19th century

S3 The contemporary world (From the 20th century to the present): Moving towards a multi-polar and interdependent world

Topic 9: International conflicts and crises in the 20th century (I) – The two World Wars

Topic 10: International conflicts and crises in the 20th century (II) – the Cold War and the Post-Cold War period

Topic 11: International cooperation since the 20th century

Topic 12: The growth and transformation of Hong Kong in the 20th century

Senior Form
The curriculum framework for History embodies the key knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that students are to develop at senior secondary level.

Introduction: The Making of the Modern World

Theme A: Modernisation and Transformation in 20th century Asia Conflicts and Cooperation in the 20th century World

Modernisation and transformation of Hong Kong

Modernisation and transformation of China

Modernisation and transformation of Japan and Southeast Asia

Theme B: Conflicts and Cooperation in the Twentieth-Century World

Major conflicts and the quest for peace
The quest for cooperation and prosperity

Learning activities
F.2 Mini-Flower Plaque workshop
F.2 Mini-Flower Plaque workshop